The specific Gravity is the weight of a precious stone in comparison to the weight of water

Hardness: The Mohs scale for Hardness comes from 1 for Talc  to 10 for Diamond

Index of Refraction of light or Brightness, Shining
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Specific Gravity, Density, Hardness, Weight + Refraction of natural Precious Stones
The four precious stones: are Diamond, Ruby, Sapphire, Emerald - The other minerals: are Moissanite, Agate, Alexandrite, Amethyst, Aquamarine, Cat's Eye, Citrine, Garnet, Jade, Lapis Lazuli, Moissanite, Moonstone, Onyx, Opal, Peridot, Quartz, Rhodolite, Rubellite, Spinel, Sunstone, Topaz, Tourmaline, Turquoise, Zircon

View diamond sizes and weight versus sizes of diamonds. View also size of diamond on ring, on finger and on hand
Specific Gravity, Density
of Precious Stones
(Water = 1 gr/cm³)
gr/cm³
3.51

3.96 - 4.05

4.0 to 4.10

2.72 to 2.76

Specific Gravity, Density

2.65
 
3.68 to 3.78

2.65

 2.63 to 2.91

3.68 - 3.78 

2.65 

3.50 - 4.30 

2.90 - 3.10 

2.70 - 2.90 

3.21

2.55 - 2.76 

2.65 

1.98 - 2.25 

3.22 - 3.45 

2.65 

3.50 - 4.30 

3.03 - 3.25  

3.58 - 4.06 

2.55 - 2.76 

3.50 - 3.60 

3.03 - 3.25 

2.60 - 2.80 

4.60 - 4.70 
Hardness on scale 
of
Mohs

10

9

9

7.5 - 8

Hardness on scale of Mohs

 7

8.5

7

 7.5 - 8

8.5

7

6.5 - 7.5

6

5.0 - 5.5

9,5

6.0 - 6.5

7

5.5 - 6.5

7

7

6.5 - 7.5

7.0 - 7.5

8.0

6.0 - 6.5

8

7.0 - 7.5

5 - 6

7.5
Listed Precious Stones
by
name

Diamond

Ruby

Sapphire

Emerald

Principal other Minerals:

Agate

Alexandrite

Amethyst

Aquamarine

Cat's Eye

Citrine

Garnet

Jade

Lapis Lazuli

Moissanite

Moonstone

Onyx

Opal

Peridot

Quartz

Rhodolite

Rubellite

Spinel

Sunstone

Topaz

Tourmaline

Turquoise

Zircon
Index 
of 
Refraction
of light

2.41 - 2.41

1.76 - 1.77

1.75 - 1.77

1.56 - 1.60

Index of 
Refraction light

1.53 - 1.55

1.74 - 1.75

1.53 - 1.55

1.56 -1.59

1.74 - 1.75

1.53 - 1.55

1.73 - 1.76

1.64 - 1.66

1.50 - 1.55

2.65 - 2.69

1.51 - 1.52

1.53 - 1.53

1.44 - 1.46 

1.63 - 1.69

1.54 - 1.55

1.74 - 1.77

1.61 - 1.64

1.71 - 1.71

1.56 - 1.57

1.60 - 1.62

1.60 - 1.65

1.61 - 1.65

1.77 - 1.98
Family




Diamond

Corundum

Corundum

Beryl


Family

Quartz

Chrysoberyl

Quartz

Beryl

Chrysoberyl 

Quartz 

Garnet 

Jade 

Lapis Lazuli

Carborundum

Feldspar 

Quartz 

Opal 

Peridot 

Quartz 

Garnet 

Tourmaline 

Spinel 

Feldspar 

Topaz 

Tourmaline 

Turquoise 

Zircon
Reading:
Densities of Common Rock Types kimberlite: the blue rock, the source of natural Diamond
Source: http://geology.about.com/cs/rock_types/a/aarockspecgrav.htm

Hardness of Diamonds and minerals is defined by measuring on the scale of Mosh in comparison from 1 for Talc to 10 for diamond.
The Mohs hardness scale lists 10 common minerals, assigning to each a hardness from 1 to 10.
(Friederich Mohs, German mineralogist 1822).
Source: http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ma-Mu/Minerals.html

Minerals examples, body, water, Earth, type, chemical, form, carbon, oxygen, substance, surface, part, Physical traits and mineral identification 
Source: http://www.scienceclarified.com/Ma-Mu/Minerals.html#ixzz18BlRVfCE
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Antwerp World Diamond Center, Diamond Exchange, Hoveniersstraat 2, Antwerp / Belgium / Europe